Numerous factors are contributing to an increase in the frequency of urban flooding brought on by heavy rainfall. Because of the excess particulate matter, urban areas typically receive more rainfall than their rural counterparts (vehicular aerosols and pollution). They serve as condensation nuclei and boost precipitation.
In addition, the expanded built-up area absorbs more solar radiation, resulting in an urban heat island. This too helps to increase rainfall under the right circumstances. Additionally, climate change-related extreme weather events have increased in frequency.
- Destruction and encroachment on waterways are two major causes of urban flooding. The focus of land reclamation initiatives and land use policy has been shifted away from an environmental balance in favor of profiteering and commercialization.
- Rainwater runoff increased and percolation decreased due to increased concretization. Only a small portion of the earth’s surface is exposed to rain.
- Clogging of drains caused by waste disposal and littering. These prevent water from draining away, along with silt.
- The burden has increased as a result of poor urban planning, willful disregard for flood prevention measures, and environmental concerns.
The following are some mechanisms for risk-reduction readiness:
- Decentralized urban planning that takes the local ecology into account.
- Mapping water bodies and keeping an eye on their condition.
- Bringing about public and administrative awareness of the ecological importance of water bodies. It has been detrimental to think of this area as a wasteland that can be developed.
- To increase storage capacity, desilting of water bodies and drains should be done in the dry season.
- Cleaning out the drainage system and avoiding littering will help the water drain smoothly.
- Limiting and outlawing the use of plastic and polythene, particularly near water sources.