● Bergmann’s rule
– Populations and species of larger size are found in colder environments, while populations and species of smaller size are found in warmer regions.
● Allen’s rule
– Animals adapted to cold climates have shorter limbs and bodily appendages than animals adapted to warm climates.
● Gloger’s rule
-within a species of endotherms, more heavily pigmented forms tend to be found in more humid environments, e.g. near the equator.
● Rensch’s rule
-After controlling for confounding factors such as evolutionary history, an increase in average body size makes the difference in body size larger if the species has larger males, and smaller if it has larger females.