●Astra is an all weather beyond visual-range air-to-air missile.
●It is developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
●It is the first air-to-air missile developed by India.
●It features mid-course inertial guidance with terminal active radar homing.

E20 fuel

●E20 fuel contains 20% ethanol and 80% gasoline.
●To be used as an automobile fuel in order to reduce vehicular emissions as well as the country’s oil import bill.
●The current permissible level of blending is 10% of ethanol though India reached only 5.6% of blending in 2019.

Hard Water

●Water that has high mineral content in contrast with soft water.
●Hard water is formed when water percolates through deposits of limestone, chalk or gypsum
●They are largely made up of calcium and magnesium carbonates, bicarbonates & sulfates.
●Water is considered hard when the pH level is above 8.5.
●Hard water does not pose a health risk, but can cause aesthetic problems such as: Bitter taste to the water & beverages such as tea or coffee.

Article 356

●Article 356 of the Constitution of India empowers the President to withdraw from the Union the executive and legislative powers of any state
●Given “if he is satisfied that a situation has arisen in which the government of the state cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution”.
●The determination of the breakdown of constitutional machinery may be done by the President at any time, either upon receipt of a report from the Governor, or suo motu.
●In Union Territories, this Article 356 is not applicable, just like in UT of Delhi the president’s Rule is applied on the basis of Article 239 AB of the Constitution of India.


●APMC means the Agricultural Produce & Livestock Market Committee established under the provisions of APLM Act.
●Agricultural Produce Market Committee (APMC) Yard / Regulated Market Committees (RMC) Yard is any place in the market area managed by a Market Committee.
●It is for the purpose of regulation of marketing of notified agricultural produce and livestock in physical, electronic or other such mode.
●The place shall include any structure, enclosure, open space locality, street including warehouse/silos/pack house/cleaning, grading , packaging & processing unit present in the Market Committee of the defined market area.

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