March 11, 2021

Lafarge Mining Case
●In the above case, the Bench asked the Central government to appoint a National Regulator for appraising projects, enforcing environmental conditions for approvals and to impose penalties on polluters.
●It said: There is one more reason for having a regulatory mechanism in place. Identification of an area as forest area is solely based on the Declaration to be filed by the User Agency [project proponent].
●The project proponent under the existing dispensation is required to undertake EIA by an expert body/ institution.
●The Bench made it clear that till such mechanism was put in place, the MoEF should prepare a panel of accredited institutions.
●This Panel from which the project proponent should obtain the Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and that too on the Terms of Reference to be formulated by the MoEF.

●The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), statutory organisation, was constituted in September, 1974 under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.
●Further, CPCB was entrusted with the powers and functions under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
●It provides technical services to the Ministry of Environment and Forests of the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
●The National Air Monitoring Programme (NAMP) has been established with objectives to determine the present air quality status and trends and to control and regulate pollution from industries and other source to meet the air quality standards.
●It also provides background air quality data needed for industrial siting and towns planning.

National Small Savings Fund
●The National Small Savings Fund (NSSF) is a fund body, which pools money from various small saving schemes.
●NSSF was established in 1999 within the Public Account of India. 
●It is administered by the Ministry of Finance, Government of India, under the National Small Savings Fund (Custody and Investment) Rules, 2001, derived from Article 283(1) of the Constitution.
●The pool from all such schemes are credited to the NSSF and withdrawals under small saving schemes by depositors are made from this Fund.
●The money parked in the NSSF is used by the Centre and states to finance their fiscal deficit, while the balance is invested in central and state government securities.

●Minimum Support Price (MSP) is the price at which central government procures the foodgrains from farmers. 
●Central Issue Price (CIP) is the price at which government makes these foodgrains available to states. The states fix retail price to be charged at fair price shops.

Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Nidhi (PMSSN)
●PMSSN will be created as a single non-lapsable reserve fund for share of Health from the proceeds of Health and Education Cess levied under Section 136-b of Finance Act, 2007.
●Salient features : non-lapsable reserve fund for Health in the Public Account;
●Proceeds of share of health in the Health and Education Cess will be credited into PMSSN;
●Accruals into the PMSSN will be utilized for the flagship schemes of the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.

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