March 4, 2021

●The National Highways Authority of India is an autonomous agency of the Government of India, set up in 1977 and is responsible for management of a network of over 50,000 km of National Highways out of 1,15,000 km in India.
● It is a nodal agency of the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. 
●NHAI has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the Indian Space Research Organisation for satellite mapping of highways.
●The Ministry of Transport and NHAI launched the green highways program in 2016.

●National Highway 4, or NH 4, is the major highway in the Indian state of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
●It is 230.7 km in length. This road running from the capital city of Port Blair to Diglipur connecting all major towns of Ferrargunj, Baratang, Kadamtala, Rangat, Billy Ground, Nimbudera, Mayabunder and Diglipur.
● This highway is known as the Andaman Trunk Road (The Great Andaman Trunk Road).

●The Permanent Court of Arbitration is an intergovernmental organization located in The Hague, Netherlands. 
●PCA tribunals have jurisdiction for disputes based on the PCA founding documents (the Conventions on Pacific Settlement of International Disputes), or based on bilateral and multilateral treaties.
●India is a party of the PCA according to the Hague Convention on 1899.
●The PCA’s functions are not limited to arbitration and also include providing support in other forms of peaceful resolution of international disputes, including mediation, conciliation, and other forms of alternative dispute resolution (ADR).

Shimbu & Anr vs State of Haryana, 2013
●The Supreme Court said the offer of a rapist to marry the victim cannot be used to reduce the sentence prescribed by the law.

●Claudius Ptolemy was a mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, geographer and astrologer who wrote several scientific treatises, three of which were of importance to later Byzantine, Islamic and Western European science. 
●In addition to his astronomical work, Ptolemy recorded longitudes and latitudes in degrees for roughly 8,000 locations on his world map, giving a detailed image of the inhabited world as it was known to a resident of the Roman Empire at its height. 
●The Ptolemaic system was a geocentric system that postulated that the apparently irregular paths of the Sun, Moon, and planets were actually a combination of several regular circular motions seen in perspective from a stationary Earth.

Simplihal Biosphere Reserve
●Located in northeast India, the Similipal Biosphere Reserve lies within two biogeographical regions: the Mahanadian east coastal region of the Oriental realm and the Chhotanagpur biotic province of the Deccan peninsular zone.
●The park is in the Mayurbhanj district in the Indian state of Odisha.
●The highest peak in the Similipal hill range is Khairiburu (1,168 metres).
●It is part of the Mayurbhanj Elephant Reserve, which includes three protected areas — Similipal Tiger Reserve, Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary  and Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary.
●Simlipal National Park derives its name from the abundance of red silk cotton trees growing in the area.
● It is the 7th largest national park in India.

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