March 7, 2021

Amyloid plaques
●Amyloid plaques are aggregates of misfolded proteins that form in the spaces between nerve cells.
●Amyloid plaques consist primarily of a 40–42 amino acid peptide called amyloid-β (Aβ) that is aggregated in fibrils that contain a high β-sheet structure.
●These abnormally configured proteins are thought to play a central role in Alzheimer’s disease.
●The amyloid plaques first develop in the areas of the brain concerned with memory and other cognitive functions.
●Plenty of omega-3 fats consumption (DHA found in these healthy fats) may help prevent Alzheimer’s disease and dementia by reducing beta-amyloid plaques.

Peptide Bond
●A peptide bond is a chemical bond formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water (H2O).
●The bond that holds together the two amino acids is a peptide bond, or a covalent chemical bond between two compounds (in this case, two amino acids).
●This is a dehydration synthesis reaction (also known as a condensation reaction), and usually occurs between amino acids.

Mini Brains
●Researchers have created tiny, brain-like ‘organoids’ that contain a gene variant harboured by two extinct human relatives, Neanderthals and Denisovans.
●The tissues, made by engineering human stem cells, are far from being true representations of these species’ brains — but they show distinct differences from human organoids, including size, shape and texture.
●The findings, published could help scientists to understand the genetic pathways that allowed human brains to evolve.

●RNA-binding protein Nova-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NOVA1 gene.
●Both Neanderthals and Denisovans had one version and nearly all modern humans had another suggesting positive selection.
●Insertion of Neanderthal gene variant of the neuro-oncological ventral antigen 1 (NOVA1) gene into human cortical organoids promoted slower development and higher surface complexity in the brain models.

●Neanderthals are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans who lived in Eurasia until about 40,000 years ago.
● They most likely went extinct due to great climatic change, disease, or a combination of these factors.
●They were fully replaced by early European modern humans. 

●Denisovans are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic human that ranged across Asia during the Lower and Middle Paleolithic. 
●Denisovans are known from few remains, and, consequently, most of what is known about them comes from DNA evidence.
●DNA evidence suggests they had dark skin, eyes, and hair, and had a Neanderthal-like build and facial features.
●Denisovan remains were discovered in 2008 and human evolution experts have become fascinated with the group that went extinct around 50,000 years ago.

Red Echo
●The National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC), which oversees India’ cybersecurity operations in critical sectors, had sounded an alert on 12 February about a Chinese state-sponsored threat actor group known as Red Echo.
●It targeted regional load dispatch centres (RLDCs) and state load dispatch centres (SLDCs), said the union power ministry.

●CERT-In, India’s cyber security agency had in November detected ShadowPad malware, one of the largest supply chain attacks. 
●The ShadowPad malware steals data from a ‘victim’ computer and is able to automatically communicate with the computer servers at the hacker’s end.
●Once every eight hours, ShadowPad sends back information like user name, domain name, host name to the hacker’s computer system.

●Power System Operation Corporation Limited (POSOCO) is a wholly owned Government of India enterprise under the Ministry of Power.
●It is responsible to ensure the integrated operation of the Grid in a reliable, efficient, and secure manner.
●It consists of 5 Regional Load Despatch Centres (RLDCs) and the National Load Despatch Centre (NLDC).
●The POSOCO was formed as an umbrella organization to give a corporate structure to RLDCs and NLDC with a mission to ensure integrated operation of Regional and National Power Systems to facilitate transfer of electric power within and across the regions and trans-national exchange of power with reliability, security and economy.
●The Load Despatch functions in India derives its mandate from Electricity Act 2003, which acted as a major reform in the Power Sector for optimum scheduling and despatch of electricity. 

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