Modern Indian History Mains (GS I)

India on the Eve of British Conquest

  • Clarify how mid-eighteenth-century India was beset with the specter of a fragmented polity. 2017
  • The third battle of Panipat was fought in 1761. Why were so many empire-shaking battles fought at Panipat? 2014

British Economic Policies 

  • Examine critically the various facets of economic policies of the British in India from the mid-eighteenth century till independence. 2014
  • Examine how the decline of traditional artisanal industry in colonial India crippled the rural economy. 2017

Revolt of 1857

  • The 1857 Uprising was the culmination of the recurrent big and small local rebellions that had occurred in the preceding hundred years of British rule. Elucidate. (10m,150 words) 2019
  • Explain how the Uprising of 1857 constitutes an important watershed in the evolution of British policies towards colonial India. 2016

Reform Movement

  • Examine the linkages between 19th century ‘Indian Renaissance’ and the emergence of national identity. (10m,150 words) 2019
  • The women’s questions arose in modern India as a part of the 19th-century social reform movement. What were the major issues and debates concerning women in that period? 2017

Beginning of Modern Nationalism in India

  • Why did the ‘Moderates’ fail to carry conviction with the nation about their proclaimed ideology and political goals by the end of the nineteenth century? 2017

Gandhian Phase

  • Many voices had strengthened and enriched the nationalist movement during the Gandhian phase. Elaborate. (15m,250 words) 2019
  • Highlight the differences in the approach of Subhash Chandra Bose and Mahatma Gandhi in the struggle for freedom. 2016
  • Highlight the differences in the approach of Subhash Chandra Bose and Mahatma Gandhi in the struggle for freedom. 2016
  • How different would have been the achievement of Indian independence without Mahatma Gandhi? Discuss. 2015
  • Throw light on the significance of the thoughts of Mahatma Gandhi in the present times. 2018
  • Since the decade of the 1920s, the national movement acquired various ideological strands and thereby expanded its social base. Discuss. 2020
  • Highlight the importance of the new objectives that got added to the vision of Indian independence since the twenties of the last century. 2017

Role of Women 

  • Discuss the role of women in the freedom struggle especially during the Gandhian phase. 2016
  • Defying the barriers of age, gender, and religion, the Indian women became the torchbearer during the struggle for freedom in India. Discuss. 2013

Viceroy & Governor-General 

  • Evaluate the policies of Lord Curzon and their long-term implications on the national movement. 2020
  • In many ways, Lord Dalhousie was the founder of modern India. Elaborate. 2013

Transfer of Power

  • Assess the role of British imperial power in complicating the process of transfer of power during the 1940s. (15m,250 words) 2019
  • In what ways did the naval mutiny prove to be the last nail in the coffin of British colonial aspirations in India? 2014

Governance and other aspects 

  • It would have been difficult for the Constituent Assembly to complete its historic task of drafting the Constitution for Independent India in just three years but for the experience gained with the Government of India Act, 1935. Discuss. 2015


  • Several foreigners made India their homeland and participated in various movements. Analyze their role in the Indian struggle for freedom. 2013

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