February 25, 2021

NCT of Delhi vs Union of India
●The case was filed as an appeal to an August 2016 verdict of the Delhi High Court that ruled that the lieutenant governor of Delhi exercised “complete control of all matters regarding National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi”
●The supreme court pronounced its judgment on 4 July 2018; it said the lieutenant governor of Delhi had no independent decision-making powers and was bound to follow the “aid and advice” of the Delhi chief-minister-headed council of ministers of the Government of Delhi on all matters except those pertaining to police, public order and land. 

Joseph shine vs UOI, 2018
●A writ petition was filed under Article 32 by Joseph Shine challenging the constitutionality of Section 497 of IPC read with Section 198 of Cr. P.C., being violative of Article 14, 15 and 21.
● This was at first a PIL filed against adultery.
●The Court decriminalised adultery, striking down Section 497 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 (IPC).
●Section 497 IPC criminalised adultery: it imposed culpability on a man who engages in sexual intercourse with another man’s wife.

Article 282 
●Expenditure defrayable by the Union or a State out of its revenues.
●The Union or a State may make any grants for any public purpose, notwithstanding that the purpose is not one with respect to which Parliament or the Legislature of the State, as the case may be. may make laws.

●National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development is an apex development finance institution fully owned by Government of India.
● The bank has been entrusted with “matters concerning policy, planning, and operations in the field of credit for agriculture and other economic activities in rural areas in India”. 
●Providing refinance to lending institutions in rural areas.
●Acts as a coordinator in the operations of rural credit institutions
●Extends assistance to the government, the Reserve Bank of India and other organizations in
matters relating to rural development
●Helps the state governments in reaching their targets of providing assistance to eligible
institutions in agriculture and rural development
●Acts as regulator for cooperative banks and RRBs

Samagra Shiksha
●It is an overarching programme for the school education sector extending from pre-school to class 12.
●The scheme has been prepared with the broader goal of improving school effectiveness measured in terms of equal opportunities for schooling and equitable learning outcomes.
● It subsumes the three Schemes of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) and Teacher Education (TE).
●Support States in implementation of Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009; and
●Strengthening and up-gradation of SCERTs/State Institutes of Education and DIET as a nodal agencies for teacher training.

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